1. Pakistan opens 1000-year-old Shawala Teja Singh temple


Pakistan has opened a 1,000-year-old Hindu temple in eastern city Sialkot for “worship” for the first time after partition on the demand of the local Hindu community.
Shawala Teja Singh temple is a 1000 years old Hindu temple in Sialkot in the Punjab province of Pakistan. After the Partition, the idols of Lord Shiva installed at the ancient temple had disappeared gradually as they had been vandalised several times, especially post-Babri Masjid demolition. Local Hindu leaders have urged the government to ensure the early repairing of the crumbling building of Shawala Teja Singh temple

Significance of Re-opening:

  • Restoring and re-opening of Shawala Teja Singh temple is a major decision in favour of Hindu pilgrims who form biggest minority community in Pakistan. According to official estimates, 75 lakh Hindus live in Pakistan. However, according to the community, over 90 lakh Hindus are living in the country.
  • Majority of Pakistan’s Hindu population is settled in Sindh province where they share culture, traditions and language with their Muslim fellows.

    2. India check Pak. proposal for consular access to Jadhav

India is evaluating Pakistan’s proposal to grant consular access to Kulbhushan Jadhav, a former Navy officer, who was sentenced to death by a Pakistan military court on espionage and terrorism charges in 2017.
Background:

  • Jadhav, 49, was arrested in March 2016 by Pakistani authorities and sentenced to death in April 2017 on “espionage and terrorism” charges. He was sentenced to death after a closed trial.
  • On July 17, the ICJ had stated that Pakistan had violated the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963, by failing to inform Jadhav of his right to communicate with the Indian consular post.

After the verdict, Pakistan had assured that it will comply with it and put on hold the death sentence. A day after the ruling, Islamabad said Jadhav had been informed of his rights under Article 36, Paragraph 1(b) of the Vienna Convention.

        Key observations made by the ICJ:

  • Islamabad has violated Article 36 of Vienna Convention of Consular Relations, 1963, by not informing India about Jadhav’s arrest immediately after Pakistan Army had taken him into custody.

India had been deprived of ‘right to communicate with and have access to Jadhav, to visit him in detention and to arrange for his legal representation’.

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

  • ICJ was established in 1945 by the United Nations charter and started working in April 1946.
  • It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, situated at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands).
  • Unlike the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in New York (USA).
  • It settles legal disputes between States and gives advisory opinions in accordance with international law, on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
  • It has 193 state parties and current President is Ronny Abraham.

Background

  • Article 33 of the United Nations Charter lists the negotiation, enquiry, mediation etc. methods for the pacific settlement of disputes between States. Some of these methods involve the services of third parties.
  • Historically, mediation and arbitration preceded judicial settlement. The former was known in ancient India and the Islamic world, whilst numerous examples of the latter can be found in ancient Greece, in China, among the Arabian tribes, in maritime customary law in medieval Europe, and in Papal practice.

The modern history of international arbitration:

  • The first phase is generally recognized as dating back from the so-called Jay Treaty of 1794 between the United States of America and Great Britain.
  • The Alabama Claims arbitration in 1872 between the United Kingdom and the United States marked the start of a second, even more decisive, phase.
  • The Hague Peace Conference of 1899, convened on the initiative of the Russian Czar Nicholas II, marked the beginning of a third phase in the modern history of international arbitration.
  • With respect to arbitration, the 1899 Convention provided for the creation of permanent machinery, known as the Permanent Court of Arbitration, established in 1900 and began operating in 1902.
  • The Convention also created a permanent Bureau, located in The Hague, with functions corresponding to those of a court registry or secretariat, and laid down a set of rules of procedure to govern the conduct of arbitrations.
  • Various plans and proposals submitted between 1911 and 1919, both by national and international bodies and by governments, for the establishment of an international judicial tribunal, which culminated in the creation of the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) as an integral part of the new international system set up after the end of the First World War.
  • In 1943, China, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States issued a joint declaration recognizing the necessity “of establishing at the earliest practicable date a general international organization, based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving States, and open to membership by all such States, large and small, for the maintenance of international peace and security”.
  • Subsequently, G.H. Hackworth (United States) committee was entrusted with preparing a draft Statute for the future international court of justice in 1945.
  • The San Francisco Conference while keeping committee recommendations in mind decided against compulsory jurisdiction and in favour of the creation of an entirely new court, which would be a principal organ of the United Nations, on the same footing as the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Secretariat.
  • The PCIJ met for the last time in October 1945 and resolved to transfer its archives and effects to the new International Court of Justice, which, like its predecessor, was to have its seat at the Peace Palace.
  • In April 1946, the PCIJ was formally dissolved, and the International Court of Justice, meeting for the first time, elected as its President Judge José Gustavo Guerrero (El Salvador), the last President of the PCIJ.

Structure

  • The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. These organs vote simultaneously but separately.
  • In order to be elected, a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes in both bodies.
  • In order to ensure a measure of continuity, one third of the Court is elected every three years and Judges are eligible for re-election.
  • ICJ is assisted by a Registry, its administrative organ. Its official languages are English and French.
  • The 15 judges of the Court are distributed in following regions:
  • Three from Africa.
  • Two from Latin America and Caribbean.
  • Three from Asia.
  • Five from Western Europe and other states.
  • Two from Eastern Europe.
  • Unlike other organs of international organizations, the Court is not composed of representatives of governments. Members of the Court are independent judges whose first task, before taking
  • up their duties, is to make a solemn declaration in open court that they will exercise their powers impartially and conscientiously.
  • In order to guarantee his or her independence, no Member of the Court can be dismissed unless, in the unanimous opinion of the other Members, he/she no longer fulfils the required conditions. This has in fact never happened.

3. Trump to Withdraw U.S. From INF Treaty


The United States formally withdraw from a landmark arms control treaty with Russia, claiming it undermines its national security interests.

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

  • The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty, formally Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles; Russian was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union (and its successor state, the Russian Federation).
  • U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev signed the treaty on 8 December 1987. The United States Senate approved the treaty on 27 May 1988, and Reagan and Gorbachev ratified it on 1 June 1988.
  • The INF Treaty banned all of the two nations’ land-based ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and missile launchers with ranges of 500–1,000 kilometers (310–620 mi) (short medium-range) and 1,000–5,500 km (620–3,420 mi) (intermediate-range). The treaty did not apply to air- or sea-launched missiles.[4][5] By May 1991, the nations had eliminated 2,692 missiles, followed by 10 years of on-site verification inspections.
  • U.S. President Donald Trump announced on 20 October 2018 that he was withdrawing the U.S. from the treaty, accusing Russia of non-compliance.
  • The U.S. formally suspended the treaty on 1 February 2019, and Russia did so on the following day in response. The U.S. formally withdrew from the treaty on 2 August 2019.

What would happen in the absence of treaty?

  • It is unclear what INF-prohibited systems the United States could deploy to Europe or Asia in the near term. The U.S. military has not advanced any land-based missiles within the prohibited ranges for decades and has only just started funding a new ground-launched cruise missile to match the 9M729.
  • Moscow is in a very different position and could speedily expand deployment. The number of operational 9M729 missiles has been quite limited, but released from its official obligations under the treaty, Moscow could deploy more units rapidly.
  • Russia could also effectively reclassify the RS-26 Rubezh, an experimental system that has been tested just above the INF Treaty’s 5,500-kilometer limit. To avoid violating the INF, Russian officials previously described the RS-26 as an intercontinental ballistic missile.
  • However, it could form the basis for a missile of a slightly shorter range if Moscow wished to boost its INF forces — without counting it under the U.S.-Russian New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, or New START, governing longer-range systems.
  • This move is also likely to undermine the 2010 New START treaty governing U.S. and Russian long-range nuclear systems.
  • The INF Treaty’s demise will undercut New START by reopening questions on the relationship between intermediate and strategic systems that have been resolved for 30 years by the elimination of ground-based, intermediate-range missiles.

4. 10th Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Ministerial Meeting


The 10th Mekong-Ganga Cooperation Ministerial Meeting (10th MGC MM) was held on 01 August 2019 in Bangkok, Thailand. The Meeting was preceded by 11th MGC Senior Officials’ Meeting (SOM) in New Delhi on 9 July 2019.

The Ministers noted the report of the 11th MGC SOM and welcomed the progress made in cooperation in prioritised sectors under the MGC Plan of Action 2016-2018.

The Ministers adopted the new MGC Plan of Action 2019-2022 that envisages project-based cooperation in the seven areas of MGC cooperation, namely tourism and culture, education, public health and traditional medicine, agriculture and allied sectors, transport and communication, MSMEs as well as three new areas of cooperation, i.e. water resources management, science and technology, skill development and capacity building.

The Ministers agreed to celebrate the 20th Anniversary of MGC in 2020 and noted with satisfaction that the MGC Plan of Action (2019-2022) adequately captures the activities and events to commemorate the Anniversary.

About Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC)

Background

  • The Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC) is an initiative by six countries – India and five ASEAN countries, namely, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam for cooperation in tourism, culture, education, as well as transport and communications.
    It was launched in 2000 at Vientiane, Lao PDR. Both the Ganga and the Mekong are civilizational rivers, and the MGC initiative aims to facilitate closer contacts among the people inhabiting these two major river basins. The MGC is also indicative of the cultural and commercial linkages among the member countries of the MGC down the centuries.

Areas of Cooperation

  • India announced 50 new ITEC scholarships for MGC countries in areas of culture, tourism, engineering, management, teachers training, film directing, sound, lighting and stage management in addition to 900 scholarships already given every year. New Centres of excellence in Software Development and Training were announced. Existing capacity building programmes in law enforcement, financial markets, ICT and space, to supplement the requirements of MGC partners was also announced.
  • 3 Quick Impact Projects in Lao PDR and 2 in Myanmar are under consideration in addition to 9 in Cambodia and 5 in Vietnam already under implementation.
  • MGC partners were invited as ‘Guests of Honour’ in the 5th International Buddhist Conclave which was held from 2-5 October 2016 in Delhi, Varanasi and Sarnath. 275 persons from 39 countries including prominent Buddhist personalities from Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam participated.
  • India drafted a Plan of Action (POA) 2016-18 which was endorsed to become the core guideline for future action. On the future direction of MGC, it was recommended that POA 2016-18 may be continued. ACCC+ India meeting is to be held in Surakarta, Indonesia in March 2017. It supported extension of trilateral highway to Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Cooperation in tourism, particularly in tourism-marketing, exploring tourist destinations for outbound tourists was suggested.

5. UN says more Afghan civilians killed in 2019 by Afghan, U.S. and allied forces than terror groups


More civilians were killed by Afghan and international coalition forces in Afghanistan than by the Taliban and other militants in the first half of 2019, the U.N. mission said in a report released.

The report apparently refers to civilians killed during Afghan and U.S. military operations against insurgents, such as airstrikes and night raids on militant hideouts. Insurgents often hide among civilians.

BACKGROUND:

  • The U.S. formally ended its combat mission in Afghanistan in 2014 but still provides extensive air and other support to local forces battling militants.
  • The report by the U.N. mission in Afghanistan said 403 civilians were killed by Afghan forces in the first six months of the year and another 314 by international forces, a total of 717. That’s compared to 531 killed by the Taliban, an Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) affiliate and other militants during the same period.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN:

  • The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan started with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in 18th It became a part of “Great Game” between British India and the Russian empire in 19th century and became free of foreign influence after the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 (by Anglo Afghan Treaty of 1919). It then became a monarchy till 1970s, and then a Soviet Union protectorate till Soviet Afghan War in the 1980s.
  • Taliban then ruled it after 1996 as a totalitarian regime till it was removed by NATO-led coalition in 2001 forming a new democratically elected government political structure.
  • Hamid Karzai became the first ever democratically elected head of state in 2004 and the current President is Ashraf Ghani, since 29 September 2014.

PRESENT SITUATION AND ANALYSIS:

  • Even after formation of a democratically elected government and removal of Taliban from power in Afghanistan, it still faces several internal issues and multipronged attacks by groups like Taliban and ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria).
  • Taliban still controls very large parts of Afghanistan and insurgency and terrorist forces are still strong in the nation. The control of government is limited only to urban areas and highways in reality.
  • US led NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) forces have been in Afghanistan in the longest conflict engagement since World War II. They are trying to establish a Government in Afghanistan to a substantial extent and there is a ‘Rule of Law’.

Map of Afghanistan

  • Afghanistan, located in South Asia, is a landlocked country bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China.
  • Afghanistan has a strategic location and it connected the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia by the Silk Road. It has been home to various peoples and witnessed several military campaigns by Alexander the Great, Mauryas, Muslim Arabs, Mongols, British, Soviet, and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries.
  • Much of Afghanistan’s territory covers the Hind Kush range that stretches along Afghanistan-Pakistan border and has been historically a significant sector of Buddhism and acted as a passageway during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent. It is still important during modern era warfare in the nation.
  • The 2430km long Durand line, established in 1896, is the international border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is described very dangerous from a geopolitical and geostrategic perspective and, lot of insurgency and other related activities has occurred across the porous border for years.

 

6. UNIDO and National Institute of Solar Energy to partner for skill development program


An agreement was signed between the National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) to initiate a skill development programme for different levels of beneficiaries in the solar thermal energy sector.

NISE and UNIDO will engage national and international experts to bring the best practices by developing specialized training material.

Background:

The agreement is part of the ongoing MNRE-GEF-UNIDO project implemented jointly by UNIDO and to support capacity building and skill development of technical manpower in the Concentrated Solar Thermal Energy Technologies (CST) which are being used to replace conventional fossil fuels e.g. coal, diesel, furnace oil etc. and save costs and emissions in the industrial process heat applications.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria.

The mission of UNIDO, as described in the Lima Declaration adopted at the fifteenth session of the UNIDO General Conference in 2013, is to promote and accelerate inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) in Member States. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group. As of 1 April 2019, 170 States are Members of UNIDO.

Accordingly, the Organization’s programmatic focus is structured, as detailed in the Organization’s Medium-Term Programme Framework 2018-2021, in four strategic priorities:

  • Creating shared prosperity;
  • Advancing economic competitiveness;
  • Safeguarding the environment;
  • Strengthening knowledge and institutions.

7. INDIA CONTRIBUTES US$ 5 MILLION TO UNRWA IN SUPPORT OF PALESTINE REFUGEES

The Government of India has contributed US$ 5 million to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) in support of the Agency’s core programmes and services, including education, health care, and relief and social services. The contribution was presented to UNRWA by the Representative of India to the State of Palestine, H.E. Mr. Sunil Kumar.

India has increased its annual financial contribution to UNRWA from US $1.25 million in 2016 to US$ 5 million in 2018 and 2019.

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees

  • The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) is funded almost entirely by voluntary contributions from UN Member States. UNRWA also receives some funding from the Regular Budget of the United Nations, which is used mostly for international staffing costs.
  • The Agency’s services encompass education, health care, relief and social services, camp infrastructure and improvement, microfinance and emergency assistance, including in times of armed conflict.

ESTABLISHMENT

  • Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict, UNRWA was established by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 302 (IV) of 8 December 1949 to carry out direct relief and works programmes for Palestine refugees. The Agency began operations on 1 May 1950.
  • In the absence of a solution to the Palestine refugee problem, the General Assembly has repeatedly renewed UNRWA’s mandate, most recently extending it until 30 June 2020.

PALESTINE REFUGEES

  • UNRWA is unique in terms of its long-standing commitment to one group of refugees. It has contributed to the welfare and human development of four generations of Palestine refugees, defined as “persons whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948, and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict.” The descendants of Palestine refugee males, including legally adopted children, are also eligible for registration.
  • UNRWA services are available to all those living in its areas of operations who meet this definition, who are registered with the Agency and who need assistance. When the Agency began operations in 1950, it was responding to the needs of about 750,000 Palestine refugees. Today, some 5 million Palestine refugees are eligible for UNRWA services.

8. India signs UN Convention on International Settlement Agreements


India signed a key UN convention on international settlement agreements, even as experts called for local laws to support the treaty’s implementation in business contracts.

Benefit:

Signing of the Convention will boost the confidence of the investors and shall provide a positive signal to foreign investors about India’s commitment to adhere to international practice on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).

Initiatives to promote ADR Mechanisms:

  • In order to encourage international commercial arbitration in India, to evolve a comprehensive ecosystem of arbitration the Government is establishing the New Delhi International Arbitration Centre (NDIAC) as a statutory body.
  • The Commercial Courts Act, 2015, has been further amended and legislative exercise to further amend the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996, is currently underway. These initiatives are being taken with a view to encourage the settlement of commercial disputes, domestic and international, in India through ADR Mechanism of Arbitration, Conciliation and Mediation.

A new Chapter (IIIA) has been inserted in the Commercial Courts Act, 2015, for mandatory pre-institution mediation and settlement in certain category of cases. Therefore, the provisions of the ‘Convention’ are in line with the domestic laws and the efforts made to strengthen Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms.

Background:

  • The United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation (“the Convention”) on 20th December 2018. The General Assembly authorized that the Convention will open for signature at a signing ceremony to be held on 7thAugust 2019 in Singapore and will be known as the “Singapore Convention on Mediation” (the Convention).
  • The Convention provides a uniform and efficient framework for the enforcement of international settlement agreements resulting from mediation and for allowing parties to invoke such agreements, akin to the framework that the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York, 1958) (the “New York Convention”) provides for arbitral awards. The Convention defines two additional grounds upon which a court may, on its own motion, refuse to grant relief. Those grounds relate to the fact that a dispute would not be capable of settlement by mediation or would be contrary to public policy.

9. US officially labels China a ‘currency manipulator’


The US has officially named China as a “currency manipulator”, a statement which will intensify tensions between the world’s two largest economies.

The proclamation by the US Treasury follows a sharp fall in the value of the Chinese yuan against the dollar.

The drop caught markets off-guard as Beijing usually supports the currency.

Background:

  • China has a long history of facilitating an undervalued currency through protracted, large-scale intervention in the foreign exchange market,” the Treasury Department said in a news release after financial markets closed.
  • In recent days, China has taken concrete steps to devalue its currency, while maintaining substantial foreign exchange reserves despite active use of such tools in the past.

What is currency manipulation and who determines it?

  • The US Department of the Treasury publishes a semi-annual report in which the developments in global economic and exchange rate policies are reviewed. If a US trade partner meets three assessment criteria, the US labels it a currency manipulator.
  • The US then tries to solve it via bilateral talks. The October report of the Treasury says that it continues to press major trading partners that have maintained large, persistent external surpluses to support stronger and more balanced global growth by facilitating domestic demand growth as the primary engine for economic expansion.

How are countries identified for the currency manipulation list?

  • The US Treasury has established thresholds for the three criteria. First, a significant bilateral trade surplus with the US is one that is at least $20 billion; second, a material current account surplus is one that is at least 3% of GDP; and third, persistent, one-sided intervention reflected in repeated net purchases of foreign currency and total at least 2% of an economy’s GDP over a year.
  • The Treasury’s goal is to focus attention on those nations whose bilateral trade is most significant to the US economy and whose policies are the most material for the global economy.

What next?

  • When the US Treasury labels a country a currency manipulator – as it has done here with China – the next step would normally be for negotiations to begin between the two countries. In this case, trade negotiations have already been going on for more than a year.
  • The process also opens the path for America to introduce tariffs. Again, that’s already happening as part of Mr Trump’s ‘America First‘ approach to trade.

10. UNSC Resolution 47 on Kashmir


Hours after the government’s decision to remove the special status for the state of Jammu and Kashmir by modifying Article 370 of India’s Constitution, Pakistan’s prime minister, Imran Khan attacked the move as “illegal” and said that it would result in further deterioration of diplomatic relations between India & Pakistan.

What are the UN Security Council resolutions that Imran Khan spoke about?

  • In his statement, Imran Khan referred to Resolution 47 of the UNSC that focuses on the charge of the Government of India concerning the dispute over the State of Jammu and Kashmir, that India took to the Security Council in January 1948.
  • In October 1947, following an invasion by soldiers from the Pakistan Army in plainclothes and tribesmen, the Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh sought assistance from India and signed the Instrument of Accession.
  • After the first war in Kashmir (1947-1948), India approached the UN Security Council to bring the conflict in Kashmir to the notice of Security Council members.

Who were the UNSC members who oversaw the issue?

  • The UN Security Council increased the size of the investigative council to include six members along with permanent members of the UNSC.
  • Along with the five permanent members, China, France, UK, US & Russia, non-permanent members included Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Syria and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

What happened at the UNSC?

  • India’s position was that it was ready to hold a plebiscite, a direct vote in which an entire electorate votes on a specific proposal, to know of the people’s desire and accept the results of the vote. Pakistan denied its involvement in the conflict and counter-accused India.
  • In response the UNSC, under Resolution 39 (1948) stated “with a view to facilitating the restoration of peace and order and to the holding of a plebiscite, by the two Governments, acting in co-operation with one another and with the Commission, and further instructs the Commission to keep the Council informed of the action taken under the resolution.”
  • It also ordered for the conflict to cease and to create conditions for a “free and impartial plebiscite” to decide whether Jammu and Kashmir would accede to India or Pakistan.

What did the UNSC order Pakistan to do?

  • The UNSC ordered that Pakistan was to withdraw its tribesmen and Pakistan nationals who had entered “the State for the purpose of fighting” and to prevent future intrusions and to prevent “furnishing of material aid to those fighting in the State”.
  • The UNSC also stated that it gave “full freedom to all subjects of the State, regardless of creed, caste or party, to express their views” and the freedom to vote on the issue of the accession of the State. It was also ordered Pakistan to cooperate with maintaining peace and order.

What did the UNSC order India to do?

  • The UNSC had a more comprehensive set of orders for India. It said that after the Pakistani army and tribesmen had withdrawn from the State and the fighting had ceased, India was to submit a plan to the Commission for withdrawing forces from Jammu and Kashmir and to reduce them over a period of time to the minimum strength required for civil maintenance of law and order.
  • India was ordered to appraise the Commission of the stages at which steps had been taken to reduce military presence to the minimum strength and to arrange remaining troops after consultations with the Commission.
  • Among other instructions, India was ordered to agree that till the time the Plebiscite Administration found it necessary to exercise the powers of direction and supervision over the State forces and police, these forces would be held in areas to be agreed upon with the Plebiscite Administrator. It also directed India to recruit local personnel for law and order and to safeguard the rights of minorities.

How did India & Pakistan react to the UNSC Resolution 47?

  • Both countries rejected Resolution 47. India’s contention was that the resolution ignored the military invasion by Pakistan and placing both nations on an equal diplomatic ground was a dismissal of Pakistan’s aggression and the fact that the Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh had signed the Instrument of Accession.
  • India also objected to the Resolution’s requirement that did not allow India to retain military presence which it believed it needed for defence.
  • The Resolution’s order to form a coalition government, would also put Sheikh Abdullah, the Prime Minister of the Princely State of Jammu & Kashmir, in a difficult position.
  • India also believed that the powers conferred on the Plebiscite Administrator undermined the state’s sovereignty. India also wanted Pakistan to be excluded from the operations of the plebiscite.
  • Pakistan on the other hand, objected to even the minimum presence of Indian forces in Kashmir, as allowed by the resolution. It also wanted an equal representation in the state government for the Muslim Conference, which was the dominant party in Pakistani-held Kashmir.
  • Despite their differences with the provisions of Resolution 47, both India and Pakistan welcomed the UN Commission and agreed to work with it.